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TOEFL Grammar Test Answers

TOEFL Structure Questions, 191-200

Answers

All questions were written by Erin Billy, specifically for the areas of difficulty of TestMagic students.

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1. It is the lack of gravity on the moon that makes ______ leaps of 30 feet or more.

possible

We need to understand a few things to answer this question correctly.

First, TOEFL likes to test these grammar patterns:

  • make it possible (for somebody/something) TO DO something
  • make something possible

In this question, we have the second pattern. Of course, TOEFL will typically mix up the two patterns in the incorrect answer choices, so we have to make sure we follow the pattern exactly.

Second, this question is a little trickier because the adjective possible comes before the noun leaps instead of after it, which we sometimes do in English.

Want to know why we put the noun after the adjective here? Yeah, of course you do. It's really quite simple. In English, we generally put the shorter part FIRST. In class, TestMagic calls this the "Short One First" rule. So, possible is shorter than leaps of thirty feet or more, so possible comes first. Got it??

it possible
to be possible
it to be possible

 

 2. Money [donated] by [philanthropist] H. R. Brandenberg [was earmark] for AIDS research in [developing countries].

donated
philanthropist
was earmark

Correction: was earmarked

We need a past participle here since earmark is a verb. to earmark means to designate for a specific use.

developing countries

 

3. In ancient [times] banking transactions often [were taken] place in [common areas], for example, a [town square].

times
were taken

Correction: took place

take place is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the passive voice; we need active voice here.

common areas
town square

 

 4. From the beginning of the twentieth century to the present, technology ______ people are beginning to imagine there are no limits to what we can achieve.

progressed to the point that
has to progress to a point
has progressed to the point that

This one's tricky. First, we should notice that we need a main verb, right? The main subject of this sentence is technology, but we don't have a verb for it. The second thing is that we need to think about the verb tense. Since the sentence says From the beginning of the twentieth century (a point in the past) to the present (now), we MUST use the present perfect. In fact, TestMagic wrote this question to fit the definition of the present perfect tense.

If you missed it, you probably chose (A). This is wrong because progressed is in the simple past, not the present perfect.

progressed a point that

 

5. It is believed that the modern bird ______ the pterodactyls that existed millions of years ago.

was evolved from

evolve is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the passive voice; we need active voice here.

evolved from

We need to memorize this preposition combination:

x evolved from y

evolved
was evolving from

 

6. A trap ______ disguise is what has come to be called a Trojan Horse, from the ancient story of the gift of the wooden horse from the Greeks.

offered a gift of

This answer would give us a double verb: offered and is. Furthermore, this answer choice would result in an illogical meaning--that the trap was offering the gift.

offers a gift in

This answer would give us a double verb: offers and is. Furthermore, this answer choice would result in an illogical meaning--that the trap was offering the gift.

offering a gift to

This answer choice would result in an illogical meaning--that the trap was offering the gift.

offered as a gift in

First, we should notice that we have a reduced adjective clause here. In other words:

offered as a gift in disguise = which is offered as a gift in disguise

 

 

7. The log cabin, [among others], was a commonplace [dwelling] for the early settlers in North because of the ease [which] it was able to be constructed and the [relatively ready] availability of its building material, wood.

among others
dwelling
which

Corrction: with which

This one's tricky! A lot of people miss this question.

First, we need to realize that we have an adjective clause here. Next, we need to understand that the word which is a pronoun and replaces ease. Finally, we should remember that we say with ease (which means easily), and we can answer the question!

Here's a trick that TestMagic teaches:

PREPOSITION + which + SENTENCE

In adjective clauses, if you see a sentence after which or that, then you need a preposition.

relatively ready

 

8. The Great Fire of 1906 in San Francisco [was happened] [primarily] as [a result of] the great earthquake preceding [it].

was happened

Correction: happened

happen is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the passive voice; we need active voice here.

primarily
a result of
it

 

9. The development of the light bulb ______ partly as a result of the widespread availability of electricity and the need for cheap, clean light.

occurring

This is not a verb.

was occurring

We need simple past here; we cannot use the past progressive when we are talking about development.

was occurred

occur is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the passive voice; we need active voice here.

occurred

Yep! This is the one--it's in the simple past and active voice.

 

10. Telecommuting is a new form of work ______ to work, such as fathers with children, the chance to work while remaining at home.

affording those previously unable

First, we should notice that we have a reduced adjective clause here:

affording those previously unable to work = that affords those previously unable to work

Second, if we understand the meaning, this question is probably easier to answer correctly. affording basically means giving. those essentially means people. previously unable to work is also a reduced adjective clause.

So, to simplify this sentence so that we can more easily understand the meaning, we would have:

Telecommuting is a new form work work that gives people (who were previously unable to work) the chance to work at home.

affords those who were previously unable

This would give us a double verb, is and affords.

that affording those unable previously

We are missing a verb.

afforded those previously unable

We need a present participle here, not a past participle.

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