Explanations for the TOEFL Structure/Written Expression (Grammar/Underlines), Test D from the 1998 Official TOEFL Kit


Here are the answers, corrections, and explanations for the Written Expression section section of Test D of the 1998 Kit that we actually used in class.

You will notice that some of the explanations have extra questions or vocab. That's because these are the questions that TestMagic students actually asked in class for that particular question.

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16. D


We need the OP for the preposition of here.

17. C


We need the adjective form to modify the noun sense.

18. D


This is a reduced adjective clause: which are known.

celestial (adj): relating to the heavens or space.

19. D


We need the preposition combination from... to... here.

sensory (adj): relating to the five senses.

20. B


We need the past particle of the verb identify here to come after the be-verb.

elicited (past participle): brought out, caused, created. In this sentence, we mean that we can cause somebody to smile.

21. C


We need respected to be parallel with the past participle noted.

22. A


We need the adjective form here to modify the noun process.

23. C


We need the plural form of the verb to agree with the plural noun points.

24. C


trusted is parallel with the past tense verbs sold and took.

took inventory (v): count and record the items you have in stock (supply).

25. B


We need the adverb form here to modify the sentence.

typically (adv): generally, usually.

26. D


We need the adverb form here to modify the verb is found.

while (sc): although.

S: What does while mean?

T: while means even though.

S: while highly prized looks strange. What does it mean?

T: This is a reduced adverb clause: While it is highly prized...

27. A


We need the determiner a here because the /y/ sound is what we call a semi-vowel. /w/ and /y/ both require the determiner a and not an.

28. C


We need the OP (object of the preposition) for the preposition for here.

29. B

in which

We cannot use what in an adjective clause. We have to use an adjective subordinating conjunction. In this case, we can use which.

30. A

which is found

We should use passive voice here, which is found since Turquoise is receiving the action, not doing the action. If you're not sure what turquoise means, you could also get this answer by noticing that found is the past tense form of find and find requires an object. In other words, we would have to say Turquoise, which found something...


turquoise (ncn): a bluish, green rock.

31. B


We should use the preposition to with the verb give.

S: What's the difference between to and into?
T: Well, first of all, you should know that we cannot use the preposition into with give, right?
S: Right. But I'm just curious.
T: Okay, no problem. We use into when we want to say that we are going inside of something, but we are also moving into that direction. For example, if we are at Ocean Beach, we can say we are going to go into the water because we are going to stand up and walk to
the water, then we are going to get  

32. A


We should use the non-count form of fabric here. Although this word, like many other words that you will see on the TOEFL, can be either count or non-count, we know that we need to use the non-count form here because much can only be used with non-count nouns, right?

33. C

lived in large

We need to use a preposition here because we want to say that the Hopi lived in structures. If we don't use the preposition in here, then we would have a sentence like this: the Hopi have lived structures and that wouldn't make sense, would it?

34. D


We can use an adjective, next, here since 50 years is a noun phrase. near is a preposition. We cannot use a preposition here because we already have another preposition, within.

S: Shouldn't we say is being explored since Exploration is a thing and it can't do the action.
T: No. This is a very common mistake. It is very easy to say that a noun is doing something in English. For example, I can say:

- the dream fascinated me
- the idea interests me
- the belief survives
- the joke bothered me
- the pen serves me well


35. D



the marketing of


the market of

The easiest way to get this one is to notice that market is a singular count noun and it doesn't have a determiner. Remember, if we see a singular count noun with no determiner, it is wrong, wrong, wrong.

36. C


Ditto above. object is a singular count noun with no determiner; therefore, it is wrong, wrong, wrong.

37. A


We should say that somebody is well known for something when we want to say that she has a habit, job, or activity that has made her famous.
We say known as when we want to say the title or position that somebody is famous for.

For example:

- Mother Theresa is known as one of the great humanitarians of the 20th century.

- Mother Theresa is known for her work with the poor.

38. A

Even though

We need a subordinating conjunction here because we have the verb is. Despite is a preposition and can NEVER have a verb after it.

39. A

work for which

We need to use the preposition for here since we want to say that Emma Lazarus is known for something.

40. B


We need the adjective form, local, here to modify the noun tastes.