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Explanations for the TOEFL Structure/Written Expression (Grammar/Underlines), Test B from the 1998 Official TOEFL Kit

Here are the answers, corrections, and explanations for the Written Expression section section of Test B of the 1998 Kit that we actually used in class.

You will notice that some of the explanations have extra questions or vocab. That's because these are the questions that TestMagic students actually asked in class for that particular question.

If you don't have this Kit, TestMagic strongly recommends that you get it--it is one of the best products available right now.

 

 

Corrections

Explanations

16. D

her

We need the determiner her; hers is a pronoun.

17. C

is sold

We need verb + complement, not complement + verb.

18. D

rather

We need to use rather with than.

S: What is ore?

T: ore is crude metal; for example, we can find ore in a mine.

19. D

to study

We need the infinitive of purpose here.

20. D

which

We should use which for things and who for people.

21. A

opened

We need the past participle form since we have a reduced adjective clause here.

22. D

owning

Rule: enjoy + -ing form.

23. A

Like

We need a preposition here. alike is an adjective and can never be a preposition. like can be both a preposition and an adjective.

24. B

lowest

most lowest is redundant; -est is already the superlative form.

25. C

its

We need to use the determiner its here; it is a pronoun.

S: So in this case, use is a noun?

T: You got it! Yes, this is very important to know because it is a word commonly used on the TOEFL.

26. C

from escaping

Even though escape can be a noun, we need to use the gerund form of escape here since we are talking about the action.

S: What about the preposition from?

T: We need to use from with keep, just like we say prevent from.

27. B

valued

or

valuable

We need to use the past participle here because we want to say that the pecan tree is valued. Even though it is grammatically correct to use noun + be-verb + noun, it doesn't make sense in this case to say that a pecan tree is value

28. B

collections

We need the plural form since we are talking about three.

29. A

protection

We have parallel structure here--protection is a noun that is parallel with Insulation and camouflage; all three of these are the main subject.

T: Do you guys know what camouflage and insulation mean?

S: camouflage is a noun that means a kind of disguise.

T: Right, for example, soldiers often wear a kind of green and brown colored uniform so that they can be camouflaged in the jungle.

So, what about insulation?

S: It's a noun. For example, a Thermos insulates coffee.

T: Right. insulate means to keep the temperature the same. For example, houses in cold parts of the world have to have a lot of insulation in the roofs so that the heat will not escape.

30. C

recent

We need the adjective form here because we are modifying the noun surge.

31. C

solve

or

to solve

After help we need either the base form, solve, or the infinitive form to solve.

By the way, help is the only regular verb in English that can be followed with either the base form or the infinitive. 

S: What about secretary? Shouldn't we say a secretary?

T: Unfortunately, this is one of those exceptions that we have to remember. Here's the rule:

If we are using a singular count noun as a job title, usually something important, we do not have to use the determiner. This is important to know for the TOEFL. For example, you might see something like this on the TOEFL:

Poet and essayist Maya Angelou is known by her writings on African-American life in the United States.

In this sentence, a lot of students might think that Poet and essayist is wrong because we would need to say The poet and essayist. However, we do not need to use a determiner with job titles.

S: So, is it wrong to use a determiner?

T: No, it's not wrong, it's optional.

Do you want some more examples of job titles that you might see on the TOEFL?

S: Yes, please.

T: Okay, here are some:

poet

essayist

author

photographer

painter

playwright

president

secretary

32. A

evident

We need the adjective form since we are modifying a noun, Faults.

T: Do you guys know what faults means?

S: I think so. For example, there is a very big fault here in California that causes earthquakes, kind of like a long hole. Am I right?

T: You got it!

33. B

benefit from

Remember the preposition combination:

benefit + from

34. D

fifteenth

We need the ordinal form since we are talking about a certain century. If we want to use fifteen, then we would have to say fifteen centuries, right?

35. D

those

When we want to use a pronoun with of + noun after it, we should use those, not them.

36. B

since

We need to use since here because we are talking about something that started in the past and has continued until the present.

37. B

settings

We need to use the plural form since we have the determiner several.

38. C

native plants

We need the adjective before the noun.

39. C

slender

We have parallel structure here--slender is parallel with long and brownish. All three of these adjectives modify Some insects.

40. C

intentionally

We need to use the adverb form here to modify the verb add.

S: I chose (B) because chemical looks like an adjective.

T: Yeah, I know. A lot of people do that. Unfortunately, chemical is one of those words that can be either a noun or an adjective.

 

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