Explanations for the TOEFL Structure/Written Expression (Grammar/Underlines), Test A from the 1998 Official TOEFL Kit


Buy this book NOW!! Here are the answers, corrections, and explanations for the Written Expression section section of Test A of the 1998 that we actually used in class.

You will notice that some of the explanations have extra questions or vocab. That's because these are the questions that TestMagic students actually asked in class for that particular question.







16. A


We need an adjective here to modify battle. firstly is an adverb.

17. B


We should use the comparative form here, less. lesser is an adjective and must modify a noun.

18. B

such as

We need to use the preposition form such as here. such is usually used in a such... that... clause.

19. A


We need the simple past here since Christine Evert retired in 1989.

20. D

to transport

We need the infinitive form to transport here because we are saying that Romans... used vessels to transport... We should only use the gerund form transporting when to is a preposition.

21. C


We have parallel structure here. We need to use the noun form structure to be parallel with habits and posture. All of these nouns are objects of the preposition on.

22. D


We need the adjective form to modify declines; severity is a noun.

23. D


We need the adjective form, wide, to modify the noun range.

24. C

roam free

We need the plural form of the verb, roam, since the subject, animals, is plural.

25. A


We need to use the plural form of mammals

26. C


We cannot use the singular determiner a here since decades is plural. In other words, a + singular count noun.

27. D


We need the noun form here to be parallel with fact, fiction, and adventure. All of these nouns are objects of the present participle blending.

28. B


We have passive voice here we need to use the preposition by to show the agent (the one that does the action).

29. D


S: Can you tell me what is parallel here?

T: Sure. We have the correlative conjunction both... and... here. What is the simplified form of the both... and... conjunction? In other words, we are saying that the structure is both what and what ?

S: We should say that the structure is both light and strong.

T: You got it!! 

30. C


S: Shouldn't we use the past perfect for this sentence?

T: No. We can only use the past perfect when we have TWO verbs in the past.

S: Can you give me an example?

T: By all means! Look at this sentence:

By the time Sir Isaac Newton was 30 years old, he had already invented calculus.

In this sentence, we have TWO verbs, was and had invented. We use the past perfect to show the relationship between these two verbs.

31. A


We need the noun form to be the complement of there was. Remember--we can only use a noun after there is and there are.

32. D


After the word various, we should always use a plural noun.

33. A

concerned with

This is a preposition combination--we should say concerned with.

S: What does concerned with mean?

T: It simply means about or related to. For example, this book is concerned with science = this book is about science.

S: Can we say concerned about?

T: Yes, but that's different--it means worried about.

34. C


We need to use the plural pronoun since the noun, vibrations, is plural.

In this sentence, we have two reduced adjective clauses:

A seismograph records oscillation of the ground which is caused by seismic waves, which are vibrations that travel...

1st which = oscillation

2nd which = waves

35. B


type is a singular count noun with no determiner; it is therefore WRONG, WRONG, WRONG.

36. A

covers an area

In this sentence, area is a singular count noun with no determiner; it is therefore WRONG, WRONG, WRONG.

37. C


We need a noun here to be parallel with backgrounds. Both backgrounds and familiarity are the object of brought.

38. D


Remember the rule:

one of + plural noun

39. A

which still

it is an extra subject since which = Rice.

40. C


We have a reduced adjective clause here. The original clause would be

...statues which are still admired...

Therefore, we need to use the past participial form of admire.

S: What is the simple sentence here?

T: money made possible hundreds