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Reading Passage #01: "The conservatism of the early English colonists..."


TestMagic Top 10 Vocab List

This list is designed to help you learn new TOEFL vocabulary and remember it.

TestMagic has chosen the Top 10 words or phrases that are most likely to appear on your next TOEFL test and put them on this list. We have NOT included the vocab that is already contained in the practice test.

To make full use of this list, you should look at the Parts of Speech (that will help you with the grammar section), and read each Sample Sentence. The Sample Sentences are designed to be easy to remember and understand. Furthermore, each sentence has other useful vocabulary in it as well.

Finally, test yourself by taking the little quiz in the last column. Choose the answer that is closest in meaning to the words in bolded red. TestMagic has simulated the TOEFL vocab questions here--they are just as tricky as the real TOEFL questions!

Good luck! Any comments? Contact TestMagic!

When you are done, click here for the answers.

Note: The buttons will NOT give you the answers. You will need to check your answers by yourself.

 

# New Word Part of Speech Sample Sentence Sample TOEFL Vocab Question
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TOEFL English

Translated

First Paragraph
1st stc The early furniture makers in North America did not want to change.

The early settlers in North America were strongly influenced by the old way of making furniture. They did not want to change the old way and they continued to use the old ways from England when they made their furniture.

2nd stc They even used tools that were similar to the old tools.

The early furniture makers even used the same tools that they had used for hundreds, even thousands of years. For example, hammers, saws, chisels, planes, augers, compasses, and measures are tools that people have used for a long, long time.

3rd stc Most woodworkers used these same tools.

Almost every person who worked with wood used these tools. For example, carpenters, barrel makers, and shipwrights all used these tools.

4th stc The "technology" to make furniture was not very advanced.

Maybe some of the furniture makers used more advanced tools like special planes or chisels, but probably these furniture makers did not have very many special or fancy tools in the 1500's and 1600's.

Second Paragraph
1st stc These furniture makers were called "joiners."

Furniture makers from that time were called joiners because the main method that they used was called "joinery." However, some of the furniture makers who were not English might not have used "joinery" as much.

2nd stc They used a special process called "joining" to connect two pieces of wood.

The "mortise" is a hole and the "tenon" is the thing that goes into the hole. Then, the tenon goes into the mortise and comes out of the other side. Then, they make a hole at the end of the tenon and put a little peg (or stick) through the end of the tenon so that it cannot come back out. This whole process make a "joint" (or a "connection") and this is where the name "joiner" comes from.

3rd stc Joining was very, very common.

This process was very common and was used in many, many different kinds of construction.

Third Paragraph
1st stc These furniture makers used very simple parts in their furniture.

Compared to today, these furniture makers did not use much hardware (things made from metal that required a lot of work to make) like nails, screws, and hinges.

2nd stc They didn't use anything that required special "technology."

For example, they used some nails, but they did not use screws. They didn't even use glue. Even the metal parts that they did use were made by hand.

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Fourth Paragraph
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Vocab Practice

New word, line #

Part of Speech

Related Word

Meaning

blanketed, l1 vt1 blanket covered
scooped out, l3 past participle scoop dug out
rounded, l3

Hint: The mountains on the East coast have been rounded by millions of years of precipitation.

past participle round made round
scraped, l4

Hint: We can use an ice scraper to remove the ice and frost from our car windshields in the wintertime.

Hint: When we want to remove old paint from a wall, we can use a paint scraper.

past participle scrape scrubbed, wiped
ridges count noun ridge upper edges, peaks
debris

Note: this word is pronounced /d^ 'bri/; we do not pronounce the /s/. Also, even though this word ends in an "s," it is singular.

non-count noun debris "leftover stuff," trash, garbage,  refuse
deposited by past participle deposit put down
margin count noun margin edge
mass count noun mass, massive "piece, chunk"
depressed vt1 depress, depression pushed down
crust count noun crust, crusty hard outer layer
rebounding present participle rebound, bound, abound bouncing back, coming back, rising back up

 

Explanations for the Questions

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TestMagic Grammar Practice: Tough ones!

 

These grammar exercises are designed to reinforce the vocab you have just learned and certain "TOEFL traps."

When you are done, click here for the answers.

Note: The buttons will NOT give you the answers. You will need to check your answers by yourself.

11. Not having yet developed a system of agriculture, early hominids spent a large portion of every day ------.
foraging food
to forage food
foraging for food

to forage for food
12. ------, the mother of a litter of pups will typically care for her brood until it is able to sustain itself.
Not able to survive on its own
A natural caregiver
To give care naturally

Although a natural caregiver
13. ------ of all animals, homo sapiens compensates for this weakness by having an exceptional capacity for memory and reasoning.
Despite the weakest
Because of being the weakest
To be the weakest

Although among the weakest
14. In effective learners, a deficit in one learning ability, say, in auditory processing, ------ another area, say, in spatial reasoning.
is compensated for in
compensates for
compensating for

compensated in for
15. An effective army ------ its enemy in the early hours, while the enemy is presumably sleeping.
will conduct a generally raid
will generally raid
generally conducts a raid

generally raids on
16. If an instrument penetrates the skin and exposes the vulnerable flesh ------, infection is possible if the wound is not treated. 
to contaminate potentially
to contaminants potentially
and potential contaminants

to potential contamination
17. In several studies done on children abandoned in the wild, researchers found apes have ------ the young helpless children as they would have their own young.
tendency to rear
to tend to rear
a rearing tendency

a tendency to rear
18. ------ a moment in time, it also preserves it for many decades to come.
A photograph captures
Not only does a photograph capture
Not only a photograph captures

No photograph does capture
19. The apparent rotation of the Sun around the Earth mislead early astronomers, who believed ------ the Sun that was the center of our solar system.
it was the Earth and not
that it was the Earth and
that the Earth and not

that was the Earth and not
20. The common tick is one of nature's most patient parasites, ------ potential host to pass by.
which are able to wait up to two years for
being able to two years wait for a
that are able to wait up to two years for a

able to wait up to two years for a
21. Not having yet developed a system of agriculture, early hominids spent large portion of every day foraging for food.
22. Natural caregiver, the mother of a litter of pups will typically care for her brood until it is able to sustain itself.
23. Among the weakest of all animals, homo sapiens compensates for this weakness by having exceptional capacity for memory and reasoning.
24. In effective learners, deficit in one learning ability, say, in auditory processing, can be overcome by compensating the weakness in another area, say, in spatial reasoning.
25. Effective army will generally raid its enemy in the early hours of the morning, while the enemy is presumably sleeping.
26. If an instrument penetrates the skin and exposes the vulnerable flesh to potentially harmful bacteria, infection is possible if wound is not treated
27. In several studies done on children abandoned in the wild, researchers found apes have tendency to rear the young helpless children as they would have their own young.
28. Not only does a photograph capture moment in time, it also preserves it for many decades to come.
29. Apparent rotation of the Sun around the Earth mislead early astronomers, who believed it was the Sun that was the center of our solar system.
30. The common tick is one of nature's most patient parasites, able to wait up to two years for potential host to pass by.
Answers