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Answers:

TOEFL Structure: Quick Test #141-150

All explanations were written by Erin Billy.

 

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141.
Engraving is a process [which] the surface of metal is [first covered] with [an acid] and then inscribed with some sharp [instrument].

which

Correction: in which

Difficulty level: Hard.

Explanation: We need a preposition here. Remember this tip: In an adjective clause, if we have a complete sentence after which or whom, then we probably need a preposition.

Here's another way to understand this question:

The noun that is modified by the adjective clause is process. The word process is part of the adjective clause. If we change the adjective clause to a sentence, we would have this sentence:

The surface of metal is first covered with an acid and then inscribed with some sharp instrument in this process.

You can see from this sentence that we must use a preposition.

first covered
an acid
instrument

 

142.For many [years ago], [much of] what was possible to know was derived [from] inspiration or divination and did not involve the rational process of reasoning in [wide use] today.

years ago

Correction: years

Difficulty level: Medium.

Explanation: ago is an adverb. For many years is an adverb phrase. We must choose one of these; we cannot use both of them together. In other words, we could say:

For many years,...

or

Many years ago,...

but not both.

much of
from
wide use

 

143.Ayn Rand, ______ novels deal with the nature of capitalism in a democracy, is often taught in introductory courses in economics.

of many whose
whose many of
whose of many
many of whose

Difficulty level: Hard.

Explanation: The pattern we need to use is this:

quantifier + of + subordinating conjunction

If we make a sentence from the adjective clause, we would have this sentence:

Many of Ayn Rand's novels deal with the nature of capitalism in a democracy.

 

144.The formation of a rainbow [occurs] a process in which light is diffused at [varying] rates by the surrounding atmosphere, [resulting in] the reflection of different [wavelengths] of light.

occurs

Correction: occurs in

Difficulty level: Hard.

Explanation: occur is an intransitive verb and can never have a noun as its object.

varying
resulting in
wavelengths

 

145.[Though] difficult, it [possible] for an adult learner of a new language [to master] the subtleties of the grammar and syntax of [the new] language.

Though
possible

Correction: it is possible

Difficulty level: Medium.

Explanation: We have no main verb in this sentence. Every sentence in English must have a main verb.

to master
 the new

 

146.When a bird molts, ______ loses its feathers, it is actually preparing itself for the regeneration of the lost feathers.

so its
as if
as when it

Difficulty level: Hard.

Explanation: In this sentence, as is a preposition. All prepositions need an object. In this case, when it loses its feathers is a noun clause and can be the object of the preposition as.

so that

 

147.The scientific method is a system [which] a problem or challenge [is] identified and possible solutions are created and tested, [with] the final results evaluated to determine the best approach to the [resulting] theory.

which

Correction: in which

Difficulty level: Hard.

Explanation: 

We need a preposition here. Remember this tip: In an adjective clause, if we have a complete sentence after which or whom, then we probably need a preposition.

Here's another way to understand this question:

The noun that is modified by the adjective clause is system. The word system is part of the adjective clause. If we change the adjective clause to a sentence, we would have this sentence:

A problem or challenge is identified and possible solutions are created and tested in this system.

You can see from this sentence that we must use a preposition.

is
with
resulting

 

148.The Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. is [home to] the largest [collecting] of Native American artifacts in the United States, most [of which] remain [uncatalogued] and hidden from public view.

home to
collecting

Correction: collection

Difficulty level: Medium.

Explanation: The noun collection refers to a group of things; the noun collecting refers the action of collecting.

of which
uncatalogued

 

149.Many modern critics of American literature have called Mark Twain, born Samuel Clemens, ______ .

as America's greatest writer
was America's greatest writer
America's greatest writer

Difficulty level: Hard.

Explanation: call is a transitive verb and can have one object and one complement, usually a noun, but sometimes an adjective. In this case, Mark Twain is the object and America's greatest writer, a noun, is the complement.

to have been America's greatest writer

 

150.In the modern [era], face-to-face communication is becoming [near] [as uncommon as] [hand-written] letters.

era
near

Difficulty level: Hard.

Correction: nearly

Explanation: near is a preposition; nearly is an adverb. We need an adverb here to modify the comparison as uncommon as.

as uncommon as
hand-written

 

 

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