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1. Because of the enormous pull gravitational of the Moon, the shape of the Earth actually changes as the largest oceans are "pulled" toward the Moon.

Because of
pull gravitational
Correction: gravitational pull.

In this case, pull is a noun (it means attraction) even though we usually use pull as a verb. gravitational is an adjective. Therefore, we need this pattern: adjective + noun.
as
toward

 

2. Only with the advent of refrigerator were most Americans able to begin to consume fresh meat.

refrigerator
Correction: refrigeration.

First, we need a noun here because of is a preposition. refrigerator is a noun, but it is the wrong form of the noun. A refrigerator is the machine that we have in our kitchens to keep food cold. In this case, we should use the noun that refers to the technology.
were
to begin
meat

 

3. Although ______ a successful film, none of her other works have to date been adapted to the film format.

The Joy Luck Club is best known novel by Amy Tan was made into
The Joy Luck Club was made into a film by Amy Tan’s best known
Amy Tan’s best known novel, The Joy Luck Club, was made into

In this case, we need a sentence after the subordinating conjunction Although. In this case, the sentence is novel was made.
Amy Tan’s best known novel, The Joy Luck Club, made

 

4. The gross domestic product of a country is a figure expressed in monetary terms that represents the entire economy value of the goods and services produced in that country.

a figure
expressed
economy
Correction: economic

We need the adjective form here to modify the noun value. economy is a noun.
goods

 

5. In addition to the more traditional simple oven many ______ either by circulating heated air around the food or by heating the moisture contained in the food with microwaves, and a few do both.

functioning modern ovens
modern ovens that function
modern ovens function

We need a main subject and a main verb in this sentence.
the function of modern ovens

 

6. One of the first state of the United States, Rhode Island is the smallest of all the states and is located north of the largest city in the United States, New York City.

state
Correction: states

We need the plural form of state here because we are talking about more than one state.
the smallest
is located
north

 

7. Critical to understand the phenomenon of human intelligence is the notion that not all human thought patterns are either predictable or rational.

understand
Correction: understanding

This is a tricky one! In this case to is a preposition, it is not part of the infinitive. Therefore, we should have a noun after to. Here's a similar example: dedicated to. to is a preposition, so we should have a noun after to. For example, we can say: I am dedicated to my family. Right? Now, what if I want to use the idea of a verb after dedicated to? For example, what if I want to say that I like to help my family? Then I would say I am dedicated to helping my family. I cannot say I am dedicated to XhelpX my family since to needs a noun after it and help is not a noun. Many of my students think this is one of the hardest grammar points to remember, so I have a sentence for them to memorize to help them remember this grammar pattern:

Mother Theresa dedicated her life to helping the poor.
not all
are
or

 

8. The advent of the personal computer and easy access to information via the Internet has allowed many more entrepreneurs ______ than ever before.

to open home-based businesses

After the verb allow we should use the infinitive form. For example, she allowed me to use her car.
who open home-based businesses
opening businesses home-based
base at home their business

 

9. Deciduous trees are those who have leaves that fall off once a year, typically before the advent of winter.

who
Correction: that

We should only use who for people, or sometimes, for such animals as pets.
once a year
typically
winter

 

10. ______ "orca" means whale, the orca is actually a member of the dolphin family, the delphinids.

That
Why
While

We need a subordinating conjunction to show contrast here. In other words, we need to use a word that means even though or despite the fact that.
It is

 
 
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